Center for Speech and Language Disorders

Center for Speech and Language Disorders
Therapy That Makes A Difference

820 North Orleans Street Suite 217
Chicago, IL 60610

630-652-0200 310-D South Main Street
Lombard, IL 60148

Helping Individuals Reach Their Full Potential

Developmental Milestones

(From www.childdevelopment.com)

Age Development Possible implications if milestones not achieved
0 - 6 Months
  • Reflexive grasp (at birth)
  • Global ineffective reach for objects (3 months)
  • Voluntary grasp (3 months)
  • 2 handed palmar grasp (3 months)
  • 1 handed palmar grasp (5 months)
  • Controlled reach (6 months)
  • Poor muscle development
  • Delayed ability to play independently
  • Delayed sensory development due to delayed interaction with toys and other sensory objects
6 - 12 Months
  • Reaches, grasps, puts object in mouth
  • Controlled release of objects
  • Pincer grasp
  • Picks things up with pincer grasp (thumb and one finger)
  • Transfers object from one hand to the other
  • Drops and picks up toy
  • Poor muscle development
  • Delayed ability to play independently
  • Delayed sensory development due to delayed interaction with toys and other sensory objects
1 - 2 Yrs
  • Builds tower of three small blocks
  • Puts four rings on stick
  • Places five pegs in pegboard
  • Turns pages two or three at a time
  • Scribbles
  • Turns knobs
  • Paints with whole arm movement, shifts hands, makes strokes
  • Self-feeds with minimal assistance
  • Able to use signing to communicate
  • Brings spoon to mouth
  • Holds and drinks from cup independently
  • Poor development of hand and finger strength
  • Delayed independent play skills
  • Delayed development of self-care skills such as eating
  • Delayed manipulation skills
2 - 3 Yrs
  • Strings four large beads
  • Turns single pages
  • Snips with scissors
  • Holds crayon with thumb and fingers (not fist)
  • Uses one hand consistently in most activities
  • Imitates circular, vertical, horizontal strokes
  • Paints with some wrist action, makes dots, lines, circular strokes
  • Rolls, pounds, squeezes, and pulls play dough
  • Eats without assistance
  • Delayed self-care skills such as eating
  • Delayed pre-writing skills development
  • Delayed manipulation of small objects such as toys, pencils and scissors
  • Frustration when manipulating small toys and objects
3 - 4 Yrs
  • Builds tower of nine small blocks
  • Copies circle
  • Imitates cross
  • Manipulates clay material (rolls balls, makes snakes, cookies)
  • Uses non dominant hand to assist and stabilize the use of objects
  • Snips paper using scissors
  • Delayed pre-writing skills development
  • Frustration and/or avoidance of pencil based tasks
  • Poor pencil grasp and pencil control
  • Poor self-care skills such as eating
  • Delayed drawing skills
4 - 5 Yrs
  • Cuts on line continuously
  • Copies cross
  • Copies square
  • Writes name
  • Writes numbers 1-5
  • Copies letters
  • Handedness well established
  • Dresses and undresses independently
  • Difficulties holding and manipulating a pencil
  • Difficulties learning to write name and other letters of the alphabet Dependence on caregivers for every day activities such as dressing
  • Frustration and/or avoidance of pencil based tasks
5 - 6 Yrs
  • Cuts out simple shapes
  • Copies triangle
  • Colors within lines
  • Uses a 3 fingered grasp of pencil and uses fingers to generate movement
  • Pastes and glues appropriately
  • Can draw basic pictures
  • Difficulties learning to form letters correctly
  • Poor handwriting
  • Difficulties demonstrating academic ability on paper
  • Fatigue during pencil based tasks
  • Frustration and/or avoidance of pencil based tasks
6 - 7 Yrs
  • Forms most letters and numbers correctly
  • Writes consistently on the lines
  • Demonstrates controlled pencil movement
  • Good endurance for writing
  • Can build Lego, knex and other blocks independently
  • Tie Shoe Laces
  • Difficulties getting ideas down on paper
  • Experiencing fatigue during handwriting tasks
  • Difficulty keeping up in class due to slow handwriting speed
  • Poor legibility of handwriting
  • May impact on self-esteem when comparing work to peers
  • Possible frustration and/or behavior difficulties due to avoidance of pencil based tasks
7 - 8 Yrs
  • Maintains legibility of handwriting for entirety of a story
  • Difficulty completing handwriting tasks in a timely manner
  • Experiencing fatigue during handwriting tasks
  • Poor academic achievement due to difficulty getting ideas down on paper
  • Difficulties due to avoidance of pencil based tasks

Developmental Milestones for Sensory Processing Skills

(From www.childdevelopment.com)

Age Skill
0-6 Months
  • Tracking objects with eyes.
  • Coordinating suck, swallow, breath sequence, tongue is cupped, forward rhythmical movements of the tongue, and jaw consistently moves up and down in a coordinated pattern. Sleeping for 4-10 hour intervals.
  • Communicating hunger, fear or discomfort through crying.
  • Reaching for nearby objects.
6-12 Months
  • Playing for 2-3 minutes with a single toy.
  • Reaching for nearby objects. Tracking objects with eyes.
  • Imitating gestures- Responds to facial expressions.
  • Identifies self in a mirror.
  • Sleeping 10-12 hours with only 1 awakening.
  • Communicating hunger, fear or discomfort through crying.
  • Tolerating a range of different textured foods.
  • Drinking from a cup.
  • Using tongue to move food around mouth.
1-2 Years
  • Distinguishing between edible and inedible objects (18 months).
  • Looking in the right spot for hidden objects.
  • Playing next to children.
  • Sitting to look and listen to books being read.
  • Engaging in imaginative play.
  • Understanding common dangers of hot objects, stairs, glass.
  • Imitating gestures- Responds to facial expressions.
  • Enjoying/tolerating messy play.
  • Tolerating a range of different textured foods.
  • Drinking from a cup.
  • Settling themselves to sleep at night or during the day.
  • Copying sounds that you make.
  • Following simple 1 step instructions.
  • Solving problems with trial and error.
2-3 Years
  • Distinguishing between edible and inedible objects (18 months).
  • Tolerating a range of different textured foods.
  • Engaging in imaginative play.
  • Paying attention for 3 minutes.
  • Following simple instructions (e.g. Give ball to daddy).
  • Following 2 part instructions (e.g. Go to your room and get your shoes).
  • Enjoying/tolerating messy play.
  • Solving problems with trial and error.
  • Pointing to 5-6 parts of a doll when asked.
  • Matching circles and squares.
3-4 Years
  • Counting 1-5.
  • Has an awareness of a parent's approval or disapproval of their actions.
  • Understanding common dangers of hot objects, stairs, glass.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Settling themselves to sleep at night or during the day.
  • Remembering most colors.
  • Choosing weather appropriate clothes.
  • Differentiating between real and pretend world.
  • Taking turns.
  • Playing with 2 or 3 children in a group.
  • Play themes expand beyond personal experience (e.g. fireman rescuing people).
  • Enjoying/tolerating messy play.
  • Dressing self (only requiring assistance with laces, buttons, and other fasteners in awkward places).
  • Tolerating different clothing textures, seams, tags etc.
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
  • Pointing to 5-6 parts of a doll when asked.
  • Coping in busy/noisy environments.
4-5 Years
  • Counting 1-10.
  • Settling themselves to sleep at night.
  • Naming shapes.
  • Developing friendships.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Following rules.
  • Sitting to pay attention e.g. mat time.
  • Coping in noisy/busy environments.
  • Choosing weather appropriate clothes.
  • Dressing self independently.
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
  • Taking turns.
  • Playing with 4 or 5 children in a group.
  • Tolerating different clothing textures, seams, tags etc.
5-6 Years
  • Writing numbers and letters.
  • Writing simple sentences.
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Recalling events and describing them.
  • Remembering a sentence to write that was just thought about or told.
  • Distinguishing between left and right.
  • Categorizing objects: "These are toys; these are books".
  • Understanding concepts like yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
  • Copying complex shapes, such as a diamond.
  • Sounding out simple words like "hang", "neat", "jump" and "sank".
  • Sitting at a desk, following teacher instructions, and independently doing simple in-class assignments.
  • Knowing where their body is in time and space to coordinate body movements for ball skills.
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
  • Tolerating different clothing textures, seams, tags etc.
  • Coping in busy/noisy environments. Settling independently for sleep.
6-7 Years
  • Forming numbers and letters correctly.
  • Independently getting herself to sleep and sleeping through the night.
  • Eating a range of food and tolerating different textures.
  • Recognizing others' perspective. Recalling events and describing them.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Remembering a sentence to write that was just thought about or told.
  • Attending for longer periods of time.
  • Sitting still (e.g. in class, at mealtimes etc.).
  • Independently toileting during the day and at night.
  • Coping in busy/noisy environments.
  • Understanding fractions and the concept of space.
  • Understanding money.
  • Taking on more responsibilities e.g. chores.
  • Naming months and days of week in order.
  • Telling the time. Reading a book on their own.
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
  • Knowing where their body is in time and space to coordinate body movements for ball skills.
  • Playing with 4 or 5 children in a group.
  • Inhibiting the need to talk and ask questions.
7-8 Years
  • Forming numbers and letters correctly.
  • Recognizing others' perspective.
  • Recalling events and describing them.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Remembering a sentence to write that was just thought about or told.
  • Attending for longer periods of time.
  • Sitting still (e.g. in class, at mealtimes etc).
  • Coping in busy/noisy environments.
  • Understanding fractions and the concept of space.
  • Taking on more responsibilities e.g. chores.
  • Understanding money.
  • Telling the time.
  • Naming months and days of week in order.
  • Reading a book on their own.
  • Knowing where their body is in time and space to coordinate body movements for ball skills.
  • Inhibiting the need to talk and ask questions.

Developmental Milestones for Self-Care Skills

(From www.childdevelopment.com)

Age Skill
0-6 Months
  • Tracking objects with eyes.
  • Coordinating suck, swallow, breath sequence, tongue is cupped, forward rhythmical movements of the tongue, and jaw consistently moves up and down in a coordinated pattern.
  • Sleeping for 4-10 hour intervals.
  • Communicating hunger, fear or discomfort through crying.
6-12 Months
  • Playing for 2-3 minutes with a single toy.
  • Reaching for nearby objects.
  • Tracking objects with eyes.
  • Sleeping 10-12 hours with only 1 awakening.
  • Tolerating a range of different textured foods.
  • Drinking from a cup.
  • Holding bottle or cup independently.
  • Using tongue to move food around mouth.
  • Feeding self small crackers or other small pieces of food.
1-2 Years
  • Distinguishing between edible and inedible objects (18 months).
  • Looking in the right spot for hidden objects.
  • Playing next to children. Imitating adult behavior.
  • Engaging in imaginative play.
  • Has an awareness of a parent's approval or disapproval of their actions.
  • Understanding common dangers of hot objects, stairs, glass.
  • Regularly checking in with adults/care givers. Tolerating nappy changes.
  • Settling themselves to sleep at night or during the day.
  • Attempting to brush teeth. Knowing where familiar items are kept.
  • Removing their own socks and shoes. Cooperating with dressing by extending an arm or leg.
2-3 Years
  • Using toilet with assistance and having daytime control.
  • Having an awareness of a parent's approval or disapproval of their actions.
  • Understanding common dangers of hot objects, stairs, glass.
  • Settling themselves to sleep at night or during the day.
  • Sitting to look at a book independently.
  • Unbuttoning large buttons.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Tolerating a range of different textured foods.
  • Engaging in imaginative play.
  • Distinguishing between urination and bowel movements, names correctly
  • Using a napkin to wipe face and hands.
  • Feeding self simple meals using a fork or spoon.
  • Taking socks and shoes off.
  • Enjoying/tolerating messy play.
  • Knowing where familiar items are kept.
  • Attempting to brush teeth.
3-4 Years
  • Having an awareness of a parent's approval or disapproval of their actions.
  • Understanding common dangers of hot objects, stairs, glass.
  • Settling themselves to sleep at night or during the day.
  • Taking turns. Brushing teeth independently.
  • Playing with 2 or 3 children in a group.
  • Dressing and undressing self (only requiring assistance with laces, buttons, and other fasteners in awkward places).
  • Knowing where familiar items are kept.
  • Toileting independently.
  • Using a napkin to wipe face and hands.
  • Independently packing items away.
  • Tolerating different clothing textures, seams, tags.
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
4-5 Years
  • Using a napkin to wipe face and hands.
  • Settling themselves to sleep at night.
  • Independently packing items away.
  • Developing friendships.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Following rules.
  • Knowing where familiar items are kept.
  • Toileting independently.
  • Choosing weather appropriate clothes.
  • Dressing self independently.
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
  • Taking turns.
  • Playing with 4 or 5 children in a group.
  • Tolerating different clothing textures, seams, tags.
5-6 Years
  • Dressing independently.
  • Morning routine at school (putting bag away, swapping readers, putting drink bottle in correct spot).
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Opening lunch boxes, zip lock bags, food packaging.
  • Sitting at a desk, following teacher instructions, and independently doing simple in-class assignments.
  • Tolerating different clothing textures, seams, tags.
  • Coping in busy/noisy environments.
  • Settling independently for sleep.
  • Packing a bag for school or other outings with assistance.
6-7 Years
  • Opening lunch boxes, zip lock bags, food packaging.
  • Independently getting herself to sleep and sleeping through the night.
  • Eating a range of food and tolerating different textures.
  • Showering independently.
  • Packing a bag for school or other outings with little assistance/prompting.
  • Expressing emotions
  • Morning routine at school (putting bag away, swapping readers, putting drink bottle in correct spot).
  • Independently toileting during the day and at night.
  • Coping in busy/noisy environments.
  • Feeding self without difficulty.
  • Telling the time.
  • Knowing where their body is in time and space to coordinate body movements for ball skills.
  • Playing with 4 or 5 children in a group.
  • Inhibiting the need to talk and ask questions.
  • Preparing simple meals (e.g. cereal, sandwich).
7-8 Years
  • Opening lunch boxes, zip lock bags, food packaging.
  • Packing a bag for school or other outings with little assistance/prompting.
  • Recalling events and describing them.
  • Expressing emotions.
  • Remembering a sentence to write that was just thought about or told.
  • Attending for longer periods of time.
  • Sitting still (e.g. in class, at mealtimes).
  • Coping in busy/noisy environments.
  • Showering independently.
  • Taking on more responsibilities (e.g. chores).
  • Understanding money.
  • Telling the time and displaying time management skills.
  • Inhibiting the need to talk and ask questions.
  • Preparing simple meals (e.g. cereal, sandwich).